Body-focused repetitive behaviors, or BFRBs, are an interrelated set of disorders categorized by “self-grooming” routines that include pulling, picking, biting, or scraping one's hair, skin, or nails. Though BFRBs—which include trichotillomania (compulsive hair pulling), dermatillomania (compulsive skin picking, also called excoriation disorder), and onychophagia (compulsive nail biting)—have been theorized to be related to anxiety disorders, impulse control disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder, most experts agree that they differ significantly from all three. Though certain BFRBs are currently categorized as “impulse disorders” in the DSM-V, debate remains as to whether these are undertaken impulsively or compulsively.
Regardless of how the behaviors are categorized, they are difficult for individuals to control, and can result in physical injury like scarring, skin infections, or bald spots. They also frequently cause emotional distress and high levels of shame—particularly if the disorder is undiagnosed or kept secret. While many people think of hair pulling, skin picking, or nail biting as merely "bad habits" that can be controlled with effort, individuals with BFRBs may find that the behaviors defy explanation and resist treatment, and may even impair their ability to socialize or function at work.
The prevalence of BFRBs is estimated to be at least 3 percent of the population, affecting both children and adults, but current treatment strategies have a long-term success rate of less than 20 percent. Treatment recommendations include cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, and select supplements. The low rate of success is likely due to the fact that almost no large-scale studies have been conducted on the disorders or their ideal treatment methods.
A precision medicine initiative, launched by The TLC Foundation for Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors (formally the Trichotillomania Learning Center) is the largest effort yet to better understand the genetics and neurobiology of these disorders. Researchers hope to determine more effective treatments. One goal, its director says, is to identify distinct subtypes of skin pickers and hair pullers so as to offer tailored treatments.